A brief history of long circulating nanoparticles

Kupffer cells rapidly intercept colloidal particles from the blood.

Early studies show predosing with placebo particles and transient elimination of Kupffer cells to prolong the circulation time of colloidal particles. Of late, mechanistic understanding of complex and integrated body’s defences against microbes led to the careful modification of physicochemical characteristics of colloidal particles to avoid rapid interception by Kupffer cells and achieve blood longevity.

This review provides a brief history of the efforts in developing long circulating nanoparticles and highlights the underlying principles and mechanisms that collectively and synergistically confer longevity to colloidal particles in the blood.




H.B. Haroon, A.C. Hunter,

Z.S. Farhangrazi, S.M. Moghimi


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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 956544
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